#
Recent Papers

Abstract

A model fermion has been produced in a theory of quantum gravity that establishes
the existence of a *mass gap* and *half-integral spin*. The third
requirement for the fermion is electric charge. We herein develop a dualism-based
analysis that explains the origin of charge at the fermion scale in a primordial
field theory of quantum gravity.

* Journal of Modern Physics* Vol.15 No.4，March 28, 2024

Abstract

Quantum field theory creates fermions via abstract operators exciting abstract
fields, with a specific field for each type of specific particle. This operator
algebra lends itself well to quantum statistics, nevertheless, our physical
understanding of this process is nonintuitive at best. In this paper we
analyze the creation of fermions from primordial gauge field quantum gravity
loops in the context of Calabi-Yau manifold theory. I extend a prior mass-gap
treatment based on Yang-Mills gauge theory of higher order self-interaction
to include the half-integral spin of fermions.

* Journal of Modern Physics* Vol.15 No.1，January 31, 2024

Abstract

When one function is defined as a differential operation on another function,
it's often desirable to invert the definition, to effectively "undo" the
differentiation. A Green's function approach is often used to accomplish this,
but variations on this theme exist, and we examine a few such variations.
The mathematical analysis of
is sought in the form
if such an inverse operator exists, but physics is defined by both mathematical
formula and ontological formalism, as I show for an example based on the
Dirac equation. Finally, I contrast these "standard" approaches with a novel
exact inverse operator for field equations.

* Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics* Vol.11 No.12, December 19, 2023

Abstract

A primordial field theory of Quantum Gravity resolves a number of century-old
paradoxes associated with general relativity and quantum mechanics. It allows
re-interpretation of major experiments such as Michelson-Gale (1925) and Q-bounce (1999)

* Journal of Modern Physics* Vol.14 No.13, December 15, 2023

Abstract

A theory of *Quantum Gravity* based on *Primordial Field Theory*
is applied to a fundamental particle, the neutron. The result is compared
to the current quantum description of the neutron bouncing in a gravitational
field. Our quantum gravity theory yields results in agreement with the
Q-bounce experimental data, but ontologically different from quantum mechanics.
The differences are summarized and imply that this experiment on a fundamental
particle has the potential to radically alter the ontology of field theory.

* Journal of Modern Physics* Vol.14 No.11，October 17, 2023

Abstract

Attempts to unify *Gravity Theory and Quantum Field Theory* (QFT) under
*Loop Quantum Gravity Theory* (LQG), are diverse; a dividing line between
classical and quantum is sought with Schrödinger cat-state experiments.
A *Primordial Field Theory*-based alternative is presented, and a
gravity-based harmonic oscillator developed. With quantum theory applied at
micro-scales and gravity theory at meso- and macro-scales, this scale-gap
contributes to the conceptual problems associated with Loop Quantum Gravity.
Primordial field theory, spanning all scales, is used to conceptually stretch
key ideas across this gap. An LQG interpretation of the wave function associated
with the oscillator is explained.

* Journal of Modern Physics* Vol.14 No.9，August 18, 2023

Abstract

A novel situation has developed in which one can discuss physics and ontology
with an Artificial Intelligence. In this paper, I present my initial experience
with such and discuss a typical session for analysis. After analyzing the session,
I attempt to interpret the significance of AI for physics and suggest possible
consequences of this situation.

* Open Journal of Philosophy* Vol.13 No.3，August 7, 2023

Abstract

Special relativity formulates a world partitioned into frames in relative motion;
absolute motion is prohibited by axiom: *no preferred frame*, with consequences for
the ontology of velocity. The best guide to physical reality is experiment, so
ontology of velocity is investigated in the context of primordial field theory in
terms of three experiments: Michelson-Morley, Michelson-Gale and Hafele-Keating
experiments.

* Journal of Modern Physics* Vol.14 No.6，May 31, 2023

Abstract

The term "relativistic mass" defined by equation *m=γm0* with
γ=(1-v^{2}/c^{2})^{-1/2}
has a somewhat controversial history, based on special relativity theory, mathematics,
logic, intuition, experiment, and ontology. Key is the ontological framework, specifically
whether the framework does or does not include gravity. This paper examines both cases,
with detailed analysis of gravitomagnetism and of relativistic mass in collisions.

* Journal of Modern Physics* Vol.14 No.5，April 27, 2023

Abstract

With a few exceptions, physics theories are based in a conception of time and space; our two
major theories, general relativity, and quantum field theory, differ in their conceptions.
Key issues herein include mathematics, logic, intuition, experiment, and ontology, with emphasis
on simultaneity and dimensionality of the world. The treatment is through ontological comparison
of two theories, space-time theory (special relativity) and energy-time theory (local absolute
space and universal time). These two theories share many of the same equations but have different
ontology.

* Journal of Modern Physics* Vol.14 No.4，March 23, 2023

Abstract

The latter half of the twentieth century yielded two tools of unprecedented power, both of which
took decades to mature to their current states. The purpose of this research is to apply these
to a theory of gravity and develop the consequences of the model based on these tools. This paper
presents such results without mathematical details, which are presented elsewhere. The tools are:
*Geometric Calculus*, developed by David Hestenes, circa 1965 and *Mathematica*,
released in 1988 by Steven Wolfram. Both tools have steep learning curves, requiring several
years to acquire expertise in their use. This paper explains in what sense they are optimal.

* Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics* Vol.11 No.2，February 22, 2023

Abstract

A primordial field *Self-interaction Principle*, analyzed in Hestenes' Geometric Calculus,
leads to Heaviside's equations of the gravitomagnetic field. When derived from Einstein's
nonlinear field equations Heaviside's "linearized" equations are known as the "weak field
approximation". When derived from the primordial field equation, there is no mention of field
strength; the assumption that the primordial field was predominant at the big bang rather
suggests that ultra-strong fields are governed by the equations. This aspect has physical
significance, so we explore the assumption by formulating the gauge field version of Heaviside's
theory. We compare with recent linearized gravity formulations and discuss the significance of
differences.

* Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics* Vol.10 No.7，July 28, 2022

Abstract

The genesis of physical particles, a foundational aspect of physics, is still a mystery.
Quantum field theory creation operators provide an abstract mechanism to bring particles
into existence. The assumption of a primordial field underlies the Standard Model (SM),
yet the forces have failed to converge to such a field. Current treatments of a superfluid-based
universe [Huang, Volovik, and Svistunov, Babaev, Prokof'ev] focus heavily on vortices and
Yang-Mills theory, so we analyze self-interaction of the primordial field in the context
of Yang-Mills. We show that a self-stabilizing higher-order self-interaction interpretation
of the Yang-Mills non-Abelian term yields a stable quantum gravity explanation of the mass-gap.
In future we will address the spin-½ and conserved charge aspects in terms of this
fundamental theory of particle creation.

* Journal of Modern Physics* Vol.13 No.7，July 27, 2022

Abstract

2022 is the centennial of an event which many consider to be a basis from which
quantum mechanics can be derived — the Stern-Gerlach experiment of 1922 — despite
that the meaning of quantum theory is today an open question. Key is "the measurement problem",
the need to measure quantum phenomena with classical equipment while the boundary separating
quantum from classical is unknown. The mechanism of the SG-experiment is analyzed, and the
*Qubit* nature normally projected onto the data is traced to *quantization of the
detector*, labelled a *Qudet*. This novel interpretation should have downstream
consequences, such as the SG-based interpretation of Bell's Theorem.

*Journal of Modern Physics* Vol.13 No.4, April 11, 2022

Abstract

Because the equivalence principle forbids local mass density, we cannot formulate
general relativistic mass as an integral over mass density as in Newtonian gravity. This
century-old problem was addressed forty years ago by Penrose, and many papers have since
extended the concept. Currently there is no satisfactory physical understanding of the nature
of quasi-local mass. In this paper I review the key issues, the current status, and propose
an alternative interpretation of the problem of local mass and energy density for gravity
systems from an information perspective.

*Journal of Modern Physics* Vol.13 No.4, April 7, 2022

Abstract

The genesis of physical particles is essentially a mystery. Quantum field
theory creation operators provide an abstract mechanism by which particles come into existence,
but quantum fields do not possess energy density. I reference several recent treatments of
this problem and develop ideas based on self-stabilizing field structures with focus on higher
order self-induced self-stabilizing field structures. I extend this treatment in this paper
to related issues of topological charge.

*Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation* and Cosmology Vol.8 No.2, March 30, 2022

Abstract

Physicists possess an intuitive awareness of Euclidian space and time and
Galilean transformation, and are then challenged with Minkowski space-time and Einstein's
curved space-time. Relativistic experiments support the "time-dilation" interpretation
and others support "curved space-time" interpretation. In this, and related work, we
investigate the key issues in terms of the intuitive space-time frame. In particular,
we provide alternative approaches to explain "time dilation" and to explain the energy
density for gravity systems. We approach the latter problem from an information perspective.

*Journal of Modern Physics* Vol.12 No.9, July 8, 2021

Abstract

In *"A Self-linking Field Formalism"* I establish a self-dual field structure with
higher order self-induced symmetries that reinforce the first-order dynamics. The
structure was derived from Gauss-linking integrals in R^{3} based on the
Biot-Savart law and Ampere's law applied to Heaviside's equations, derived in
strength-independent fashion in *"Primordial Principle of Self-Interaction"*.
The derivation involves Geometric Calculus, topology, and field equations.
My goal in this paper is to derive the simplest solution of a self-stabilized
solitonic structure and discuss this model of a neutrino.

*Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology* Vol.7 No.3, July 1, 2021

Abstract

The Gauss-linking integral for disjoint oriented smooth closed curves is
derived linking integrals from the Biot-Savart description of the magnetic field.
DeTurck and Gluck extend this linking from 3-space R3 to SU (2) space of the unit 3-sphere
and hyperbolic space in Minkowski R1,3. I herein extend Gauss-linking to self-linking and
develop the concept of self-dual, which is then applied to gravitomagnetic dynamics.
My purpose is to redefine Wheeler’s geon from unstable field structures based on the
electromagnetic field to self-stabilized gravitomagnetic field structures.

*Journal of Modern Physics* Vol.12 No.4, March 15, 2021

Abstract

The Standard Model of Particle Physics treats four fields — the
gravitational, electromagnetic, weak and strong fields. These fields are assumed to converge
to a single field at the big bang, but the theory has failed to produce this convergence.
Our theory proposes *one* primordial field and analyzes the evolution of this field.
The key assumption is that *only* the primordial field exists — if any change is
to occur, it must be based upon self-interaction, as there is nothing other than the field
itself to interact with. This can be formalized as the *Principle of Self-interaction*
and the consequences explored. I show that this leads to the linearized Einstein field
equations and discuss the key ontological implications of the theory.

*Journal of Modern Physics* Vol.12 No.2, January 14, 2021

Abstract

20th century physics experimentally established beyond doubt the fact that moving clocks
read differently from "static" clocks. This fact is typically interpreted as support for special
relativity. On the other hand, the same century produced proof that clocks at various locations
in the gravitational field also read differently, and this fact is explained by general relativity,
which is, in general, not Lorentz transformable. This paper establishes a common framework for the
physics of clocks in these different situations.

*Journal of Modern Physics* Vol.11 No.12, December 16, 2020

Abstract

Iteration problems such as compound interest calculations have well-specified parameters and
aim to derive an exact value. Not all problems offer well-specified parameters, even for well-defined
dynamic equations; the linear "weak field approximation" of general relativity is iteratively equivalent
to Einstein's non-linear field equation, but the exact parameters involved in some applications are unknown.
This paper develops a theory based on "fuzzy" parameters that must produce exact results. The problem is
analyzed and example calculations are produced.

*Applied Mathematics* Vol.11 No.11, November 6, 2020

Abstract

Differential equations of electromagnetic and similar physical fields are
generally solved via antiderivative Green's functions involving integration over a
region and its boundary. Research on the Kasner metric reveals a variable boundary
deemed inappropriate for standard anti-derivatives, suggesting the need for an
alternative solution technique. In this work I derive such a solution and prove its
existence, based on circulation equations in which the curl of the field is induced
by source current density and possibly changes in associated fields. We present an
anti-curl operator that is believed novel and we prove that it solves for the field
without integration required.

*Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics* Vol.8 No.10, October 27, 2020

Abstract

Pre-space-time reality is modeled as a primordial field, a matterless continuum or superfluid, in
which local field energy is effectively limitless. Super-fluids are characterized by vorticity.
The problem of pre-space-time modeling is the *evolution* of the system: Unlike the Schwarzschild
*static* solution,
the pre-space-time metric must evolve with time. The *Horizon Problem* seeks to explain the
isotropy of the universe based on inflation models wherein separate regions of the universe are
never in contact; therefore a solution should hold at arbitrary points in the field. In this paper, I
construct the physics for a dynamic spatially homogeneous anisotropic Bianchi vacuum
model that exactly solves Einstein's equations in terms of the physically real primordial field.

Abstract

Special relativity is non-intuitive, leading to logical contradictions.
For over a century there has been no alternative theory capable of explaining
the many relativity experiments, especially time-dilation experiments.
Unlike quantum mechanics, relativity is interpreted only in terms of space-time symmetry.
Here we derive and discuss an alternative theory, *Energy-time dynamics*,
that explains relativistic experiments and does not yield the logical contradictions of relativity.

Abstract

The *special theory of relativity* has confused physicists for over a century,
demolishing our intuitive understanding of time. Its success depends on two facts:
1) Einstein hid his *false premise* in the definition of *inertial reference frame*
and then based all axioms on this, and
2) the *proofs* of time dilation, from *muon* to Hafele-Keating time differentials.
Unlike quantum mechanics — with its Bohr, Bohm, Everett, and other interpretations —
special relativity has only *one* interpretation: that of *space-time symmetry*.
Herein I develop an *energy-time conjugation* interpretation offering a new way
to interpret time dilation proofs.

Abstract

Heinrich Hertz and Albert Einstein were experimental *and* theoretical geniuses.
Hertz demonstrated the existence of radio waves. Einstein [with deHaas]
experimentally linked magnetism and angular momentum.
These two ingenious physicists tackled Maxwell's equations but diverged in their interpretations of reality.
Einstein bases his classic paper on the Maxwell-Hertz equations.
We report a post-humous meeting of these geniuses discussing "What is fundamental?"

Abstract

The special theory of relativity is classically interpreted in terms of space-time symmetry,
with the Lorentz transformation modifying the Galilean transformation as required to translate
between 4-dimensional inertial frames as defined by Einstein and developed in relativistic texts.
We begin here an energy-time asymmetrical interpretation based on multiplying the Galilean transformation
by an energy factor representing the difference in energy between a system at rest and
a system moving with velocity **v**, both systems existing in one universal inertial frame.
Detailed consequences of this energy-time interpretation of
Lorentz-based physics will be treated in following papers.

Abstract

Does purpose arise from 'mindless math'? Humans are self-aware and aware of their surroundings,
thus conscious. The Darwinian Credo holds that consciousness *emerges* from increasing complexity.
The alternative is an inherently conscious, purposeful universe. How does one decide this issue?
The basis of physics is experience, so we analyze *mind* from this perspective.

Abstract

Is the best path to understanding nature continued explosive growth of physics,
or carefully pruning false premises from over-specified models of reality?
I remove false premises from relativity,
and discuss the removal of false premises from quantum mechanics.

Abstract

A theory's equations are designed to model physical *behavior* that reflects the *nature* of physical reality.
Einstein's nonlinear gravity equation is 'linearized' in the 'weak field limit' by ignoring nonlinear terms.
This can be misinterpreted as affecting the nature of the field.
Linearization is a mathematical artifice making equations easier to solve,
having *zero effect* on the physical nature of the field itself.
Thus it is false to say that the weak gravitational field is *not self-interacting*.
Nor is the weak gravitational field based on mass; the field equation is based on *mass density*.
These aspects of gravity are investigated by replacing curved space-time with mass density in flat space.
A novel quantum gravity relation is derived and related to quantum mechanics.

Abstract

The near-century-old Stern-Gerlach experiment played an important role in the philosophy of quantum mechanics.
50 years ago Bell drew drastic conclusions about the nature of reality based on a model of Stern-Gerlach,
yet most detailed analysis of spin in nonuniform magnetic fields has occurred post-Bell.
Recent focus on work in non-equilibrium thermodynamics has potential significance
for quantum mechanics so we develop a spin dynamical analysis of work in an inhomogeneous field.
A small angle approximation analysis is performed.
We derive a novel Stern-Gerlach gradient threshold relation and
a decay rate for precession in a non-uniform field.
The theory is compared to a quantum analysis and an experiment to test this theory is proposed.

Abstract

Viewing Math and Physics as Korzybski's 'map' and 'territory',
we analyze their trust-worthiness. Maps derived from observations
of the real world bring eigenvalue-based measurement into question.
But what to do when the map logic conflicts with our physical intuition?
This is often resolved in favor of the non-intuitive, whether simultaneity
in relativity or non-locality in the case of Bell's theorem.
The subtle nature of Bell's hidden constraints erasing the hidden variable
information is the basis of Bell's lack of trust in his intuition.

Abstract

Bell oversimplified his model based on confusing a provisional precession
eigenvalue equation with Dirac's fundamental helicity eigenvalue equation.
I derive a local classical model based on energy-exchange physics that Bell
intentionally suppressed and I show that Bell's constraints determine whether
the model is local or non-local. The physical theory upon which the model is
based can be tested experimentally; if valid, Bell's claims of non-locality
will be proved wrong.

Abstract

In "Quantum Spin and Local Reality" (QSLR) I show that Bell suppressed key
physical phenomena to arrive at his inequality. As a result Bell's conclusions
are incorrect — his model fails to match reality. Bell's defense is based on
quantum mechanical eigenvalue equations with reference to Dirac. I briefly
review some issues in the history of spin, and analyze the non-relativistic
Stern-Gerlach eigenvalue equation and the relativistic Dirac equation, and
show their relevance to Bell.

Abstract

Almost a century ago Stern-Gerlach laid important foundations for
quantum mechanics. Based on these, Bell formulated a model of local
hidden variables, which is supposed to describe "all possible ways"
in which classical systems can generate results, but Bell did not
consider one possibility in which classical behavior leads to quantum
results. Bell buried the key fact needed to challenge his logic: the
ø-dependence of two energy modes: rotation and deflection. An
*Energy-Exchange theorem* is presented and proved: if dø/dt is
not equal to zero, the implied time-evolution will affect expectation
values and the essentially classical mechanism yields quantum
correlations *-a·b*. Analysis of the spin-component measurement
brings Bell's counterfactual logic into question. I show that Watson's
formal linking of time-evolution operator to measurement operation
addresses Bell's stated concerns about *measurement* in quantum
mechanics and produces the *-a·b* correlation. Our results,
restricted to particle spin, have wider implications, including
relevance to the ontic versus epistemic issues currently debated in
the literature. The suggested formalism extends beyond Stern-Gerlach
to other quantum mechanical processes characterized by a 'jump' or
'collapse of the wave function'.

Abstract

History has shown that humanity works best when freedom is maximized.
A topic like "How Should Humanity Steer the Future" requires extreme
idealization, and something resembling a statistical mechanics approach,
leading to a thermodynamic model. Thermodynamics does work only when
a system has free energy. We link these different concepts of freedom
in this essay. Statistical mechanics treats large numbers of elements,
N, and total energy, E. The energy of labor, if not completely controlled
by force, is controlled by money, so we will measure energy in dollars.
This applies generally to the electrical energy one buys from a power
company or to physical work one does on a day-to-day basis. "Steer" is
a control concept implying a goal, therefore we formulate two idealized
goals and analyze their implications. To be relevant to reality, we address
two real goals, argued every day in the world, but simplified to allow analysis.

Abstract

The question 'It from Bit' or vice versa is the question of what is real.
The answer is a matter of belief, so I analyze why physicists believe theories,
including QED and QCD and follow with the simplest possible theory of the real world.
I focus on the fact that gravity is real, and discuss a new approach to non-linearity.
Because Wheeler's 'It from Bit' is tied to his *Participatory Universe* I explore that
topic and a theory of information based on gravity.

Abstract

Which of our basic physical assumptions are wrong? Superposition of quantum
states and collapse of the wave function are significant assumptions.
We address the physics of the wave function, the wave function as probability,
the extent of the wave function, quantum correlations, Bell's theorem,
spaces in which wave functions are formulated, and discuss recent experiments
that support our interpretation.

Abstract

Is Reality Analog or Digital? Analog and digital mathematical treatments can be
shown to be equivalent, so the answer does not lie in math but in physics. At
root is the nature of *particles* and *fields*. The simplest
possible physical model, *one field*, will be analyzed and *physical
experiments proposed* to show an analog reality with digital consequences. There
are implications for the view of reality currently associated with entanglement
and violation of Bell's inequality.

Abstract

Because every physical theory
assumes *something*, that basic assumption will determine what is
ultimately possible in that physics. The assumed *thing* itself will likely
be unexplained. This essay will assume one thing, a *primordial field*,
to explain current physics and its many current mysteries. The derivation of
physics from this entity is surprisingly straightforward and amazingly broad in
its implications.

Abstract

FPGAs and microprocessors are more similar than you may think.
Here's a primer on how to program an FPGA and some reasons why you'd want to.

Small processors are, by far, the largest selling class of computers
and form the basis of many embedded systems. The
first single-chip microprocessors contained approximately
10,000 gates of logic and 10,000 bits of memory. Today, field
programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) provide single chips
approaching 10 million gates of logic and 10 million bits of memory...

Abstract

FPGAs enable everyone to be a chip designer.
This installment shows how to design the bus interface for a generic peripheral chip.

When designing with an embedded microprocessor, you always
have to take into account, if not begin with, the actual pinout
of the device. Each pin on a given microprocessor is uniquely
defined by the manufacturer and must be used in a specific
manner to achieve a specific function. Part of learning to
design with embedded processors is learning the pin definitions.
In contrast, field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices come to the
design with pins completely undefined (except for power and ground). You have
to define the FPGA's pins yourself. This gives you incredible flexibility but also
forces you to think through the use of each pin...

Abstract

After decades of experimental validation, Bell's Theorem has changed the
ontological status of local realism in physics. But recent theoretical
and experimental results present a new challenge to Bell's analysis.
A geometric-algebraic challenge claims that Bell makes a topological mistake,
while 'weak measurement' results challenge the Copenhagen Interpretation.
We review these results and analyze the physics of Bell's Theorem,
embedding Bell's inequality in a truth statement, and showing it to be falsified.

Abstract

At the root of reality is the nature of particles and fields.
The simplest possible physical model, one field, the gravito-magnetic field,
self-interacts to produce mass and charge and hence the electromagnetic field.
This paper focuses on the interaction of this gravito-magnetic field
with the electro-magnetic field.