Recent Papers

Qubit or Qudet: Projections onto Reality


2022 is the centennial of an event which many consider to be a basis from which quantum mechanics can be derived — the Stern-Gerlach experiment of 1922 — despite that the meaning of quantum theory is today an open question. Key is "the measurement problem", the need to measure quantum phenomena with classical equipment while the boundary separating quantum from classical is unknown. The mechanism of the SG-experiment is analyzed, and the Qubit nature normally projected onto the data is traced to quantization of the detector, labelled a Qudet. This novel interpretation should have downstream consequences, such as the SG-based interpretation of Bell's Theorem.

Journal of Modern Physics Vol.13 No.4, April 11, 2022

A Re-Interpretation of Quasi-Local Mass


Because the equivalence principle forbids local mass density, we cannot formulate general relativistic mass as an integral over mass density as in Newtonian gravity. This century-old problem was addressed forty years ago by Penrose, and many papers have since extended the concept. Currently there is no satisfactory physical understanding of the nature of quasi-local mass. In this paper I review the key issues, the current status, and propose an alternative interpretation of the problem of local mass and energy density for gravity systems from an information perspective.

Journal of Modern Physics Vol.13 No.4, April 7, 2022

Higher Order Self-Induced Self-Interacting Field


The genesis of physical particles is essentially a mystery. Quantum field theory creation operators provide an abstract mechanism by which particles come into existence, but quantum fields do not possess energy density. I reference several recent treatments of this problem and develop ideas based on self-stabilizing field structures with focus on higher order self-induced self-stabilizing field structures. I extend this treatment in this paper to related issues of topological charge.

Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology Vol.8 No.2, March 30, 2022

Encoding Energy-Density as Geometry


Physicists possess an intuitive awareness of Euclidian space and time and Galilean transformation, and are then challenged with Minkowski space-time and Einstein's curved space-time. Relativistic experiments support the "time-dilation" interpretation and others support "curved space-time" interpretation. In this, and related work, we investigate the key issues in terms of the intuitive space-time frame. In particular, we provide alternative approaches to explain "time dilation" and to explain the energy density for gravity systems. We approach the latter problem from an information perspective.

Journal of Modern Physics Vol.12 No.9, July 8, 2021

A Self-Stabilized Field Theory of Neutrinos


In "A Self-linking Field Formalism" I establish a self-dual field structure with higher order self-induced symmetries that reinforce the first-order dynamics. The structure was derived from Gauss-linking integrals in R3 based on the Biot-Savart law and Ampere's law applied to Heaviside's equations, derived in strength-independent fashion in "Primordial Principle of Self-Interaction". The derivation involves Geometric Calculus, topology, and field equations. My goal in this paper is to derive the simplest solution of a self-stabilized solitonic structure and discuss this model of a neutrino.

Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology Vol.7 No.3, July 1, 2021

A Self-Linking Field Formalism


The Gauss-linking integral for disjoint oriented smooth closed curves is derived linking integrals from the Biot-Savart description of the magnetic field. DeTurck and Gluck extend this linking from 3-space R3 to SU (2) space of the unit 3-sphere and hyperbolic space in Minkowski R1,3. I herein extend Gauss-linking to self-linking and develop the concept of self-dual, which is then applied to gravitomagnetic dynamics. My purpose is to redefine Wheeler’s geon from unstable field structures based on the electromagnetic field to self-stabilized gravitomagnetic field structures.

Journal of Modern Physics Vol.12 No.4, March 15, 2021

The Primordial Principle of Self-Interaction


The Standard Model of Particle Physics treats four fields — the gravitational, electromagnetic, weak and strong fields. These fields are assumed to converge to a single field at the big bang, but the theory has failed to produce this convergence. Our theory proposes one primordial field and analyzes the evolution of this field. The key assumption is that only the primordial field exists — if any change is to occur, it must be based upon self-interaction, as there is nothing other than the field itself to interact with. This can be formalized as the Principle of Self-interaction and the consequences explored. I show that this leads to the linearized Einstein field equations and discuss the key ontological implications of the theory.

Journal of Modern Physics Vol.12 No.2, January 14, 2021

Physics of Clocks in Absolute Space-Time


20th century physics experimentally established beyond doubt the fact that moving clocks read differently from "static" clocks. This fact is typically interpreted as support for special relativity. On the other hand, the same century produced proof that clocks at various locations in the gravitational field also read differently, and this fact is explained by general relativity, which is, in general, not Lorentz transformable. This paper establishes a common framework for the physics of clocks in these different situations.

Journal of Modern Physics Vol.11 No.12, December 16, 2020

Iterating with Fuzzy Parameters to Produce Exact Results


Iteration problems such as compound interest calculations have well-specified parameters and aim to derive an exact value. Not all problems offer well-specified parameters, even for well-defined dynamic equations; the linear "weak field approximation" of general relativity is iteratively equivalent to Einstein's non-linear field equation, but the exact parameters involved in some applications are unknown. This paper develops a theory based on "fuzzy" parameters that must produce exact results. The problem is analyzed and example calculations are produced.

Applied Mathematics Vol.11 No.11, November 6, 2020

Exact Inverse Operator on Field Equations


Differential equations of electromagnetic and similar physical fields are generally solved via antiderivative Green's functions involving integration over a region and its boundary. Research on the Kasner metric reveals a variable boundary deemed inappropriate for standard anti-derivatives, suggesting the need for an alternative solution technique. In this work I derive such a solution and prove its existence, based on circulation equations in which the curl of the field is induced by source current density and possibly changes in associated fields. We present an anti-curl operator that is believed novel and we prove that it solves for the field without integration required.

Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics Vol.8 No.10, October 27, 2020

A Primordial Space-time Metric


Pre-space-time reality is modeled as a primordial field, a matterless continuum or superfluid, in which local field energy is effectively limitless. Super-fluids are characterized by vorticity. The problem of pre-space-time modeling is the evolution of the system: Unlike the Schwarzschild static solution, the pre-space-time metric must evolve with time. The Horizon Problem seeks to explain the isotropy of the universe based on inflation models wherein separate regions of the universe are never in contact; therefore a solution should hold at arbitrary points in the field. In this paper, I construct the physics for a dynamic spatially homogeneous anisotropic Bianchi vacuum model that exactly solves Einstein's equations in terms of the physically real primordial field.

Energy-time dynamics vs space-time symmetry


Special relativity is non-intuitive, leading to logical contradictions. For over a century there has been no alternative theory capable of explaining the many relativity experiments, especially time-dilation experiments. Unlike quantum mechanics, relativity is interpreted only in terms of space-time symmetry. Here we derive and discuss an alternative theory, Energy-time dynamics, that explains relativistic experiments and does not yield the logical contradictions of relativity.

Everything's relative, or is it?


The special theory of relativity has confused physicists for over a century, demolishing our intuitive understanding of time. Its success depends on two facts: 1) Einstein hid his false premise in the definition of inertial reference frame and then based all axioms on this, and 2) the proofs of time dilation, from muon to Hafele-Keating time differentials. Unlike quantum mechanics — with its Bohr, Bohm, Everett, and other interpretations — special relativity has only one interpretation: that of space-time symmetry. Herein I develop an energy-time conjugation interpretation offering a new way to interpret time dilation proofs.

The Fundamental Nature of Time


Heinrich Hertz and Albert Einstein were experimental and theoretical geniuses. Hertz demonstrated the existence of radio waves. Einstein [with deHaas] experimentally linked magnetism and angular momentum. These two ingenious physicists tackled Maxwell's equations but diverged in their interpretations of reality. Einstein bases his classic paper on the Maxwell-Hertz equations. We report a post-humous meeting of these geniuses discussing "What is fundamental?"

An energy-based derivation of Lorentz transformation in one inertial frame


The special theory of relativity is classically interpreted in terms of space-time symmetry, with the Lorentz transformation modifying the Galilean transformation as required to translate between 4-dimensional inertial frames as defined by Einstein and developed in relativistic texts. We begin here an energy-time asymmetrical interpretation based on multiplying the Galilean transformation by an energy factor representing the difference in energy between a system at rest and a system moving with velocity v, both systems existing in one universal inertial frame. Detailed consequences of this energy-time interpretation of Lorentz-based physics will be treated in following papers.

The Nature of Mind:
mindless math = projections on reality


Does purpose arise from 'mindless math'? Humans are self-aware and aware of their surroundings, thus conscious. The Darwinian Credo holds that consciousness emerges from increasing complexity. The alternative is an inherently conscious, purposeful universe. How does one decide this issue? The basis of physics is experience, so we analyze mind from this perspective.

False Premises, Quantum Gravity, Single-Atom Stern-Gerlach, & Dipole-Dipole Physics


Is the best path to understanding nature continued explosive growth of physics, or carefully pruning false premises from over-specified models of reality? I remove false premises from relativity, and discuss the removal of false premises from quantum mechanics.

The Nature of Quantum Gravity


A theory's equations are designed to model physical behavior that reflects the nature of physical reality. Einstein's nonlinear gravity equation is 'linearized' in the 'weak field limit' by ignoring nonlinear terms. This can be misinterpreted as affecting the nature of the field. Linearization is a mathematical artifice making equations easier to solve, having zero effect on the physical nature of the field itself. Thus it is false to say that the weak gravitational field is not self-interacting. Nor is the weak gravitational field based on mass; the field equation is based on mass density. These aspects of gravity are investigated by replacing curved space-time with mass density in flat space. A novel quantum gravity relation is derived and related to quantum mechanics.

Modern Classical Spin Dynamics


The near-century-old Stern-Gerlach experiment played an important role in the philosophy of quantum mechanics. 50 years ago Bell drew drastic conclusions about the nature of reality based on a model of Stern-Gerlach, yet most detailed analysis of spin in nonuniform magnetic fields has occurred post-Bell. Recent focus on work in non-equilibrium thermodynamics has potential significance for quantum mechanics so we develop a spin dynamical analysis of work in an inhomogeneous field. A small angle approximation analysis is performed. We derive a novel Stern-Gerlach gradient threshold relation and a decay rate for precession in a non-uniform field. The theory is compared to a quantum analysis and an experiment to test this theory is proposed.

The Nature of Bell's Hidden Constraints


Viewing Math and Physics as Korzybski's 'map' and 'territory', we analyze their trust-worthiness. Maps derived from observations of the real world bring eigenvalue-based measurement into question. But what to do when the map logic conflicts with our physical intuition? This is often resolved in favor of the non-intuitive, whether simultaneity in relativity or non-locality in the case of Bell's theorem. The subtle nature of Bell's hidden constraints erasing the hidden variable information is the basis of Bell's lack of trust in his intuition.

Bell was Simply Wrong


Bell oversimplified his model based on confusing a provisional precession eigenvalue equation with Dirac's fundamental helicity eigenvalue equation. I derive a local classical model based on energy-exchange physics that Bell intentionally suppressed and I show that Bell's constraints determine whether the model is local or non-local. The physical theory upon which the model is based can be tested experimentally; if valid, Bell's claims of non-locality will be proved wrong.

Spin: Newton, Maxwell, Einstein, Dirac, Bell


In "Quantum Spin and Local Reality" (QSLR) I show that Bell suppressed key physical phenomena to arrive at his inequality. As a result Bell's conclusions are incorrect — his model fails to match reality. Bell's defense is based on quantum mechanical eigenvalue equations with reference to Dirac. I briefly review some issues in the history of spin, and analyze the non-relativistic Stern-Gerlach eigenvalue equation and the relativistic Dirac equation, and show their relevance to Bell.

Quantum Spin and Local Reality:
A Quantum Theory of Events


Almost a century ago Stern-Gerlach laid important foundations for quantum mechanics. Based on these, Bell formulated a model of local hidden variables, which is supposed to describe "all possible ways" in which classical systems can generate results, but Bell did not consider one possibility in which classical behavior leads to quantum results. Bell buried the key fact needed to challenge his logic: the ø-dependence of two energy modes: rotation and deflection. An Energy-Exchange theorem is presented and proved: if dø/dt is not equal to zero, the implied time-evolution will affect expectation values and the essentially classical mechanism yields quantum correlations -a·b. Analysis of the spin-component measurement brings Bell's counterfactual logic into question. I show that Watson's formal linking of time-evolution operator to measurement operation addresses Bell's stated concerns about measurement in quantum mechanics and produces the -a·b correlation. Our results, restricted to particle spin, have wider implications, including relevance to the ontic versus epistemic issues currently debated in the literature. The suggested formalism extends beyond Stern-Gerlach to other quantum mechanical processes characterized by a 'jump' or 'collapse of the wave function'.

The Thermodynamics of Freedom


History has shown that humanity works best when freedom is maximized. A topic like "How Should Humanity Steer the Future" requires extreme idealization, and something resembling a statistical mechanics approach, leading to a thermodynamic model. Thermodynamics does work only when a system has free energy. We link these different concepts of freedom in this essay. Statistical mechanics treats large numbers of elements, N, and total energy, E. The energy of labor, if not completely controlled by force, is controlled by money, so we will measure energy in dollars. This applies generally to the electrical energy one buys from a power company or to physical work one does on a day-to-day basis. "Steer" is a control concept implying a goal, therefore we formulate two idealized goals and analyze their implications. To be relevant to reality, we address two real goals, argued every day in the world, but simplified to allow analysis.

Gravity and the Nature of Information


The question 'It from Bit' or vice versa is the question of what is real. The answer is a matter of belief, so I analyze why physicists believe theories, including QED and QCD and follow with the simplest possible theory of the real world. I focus on the fact that gravity is real, and discuss a new approach to non-linearity. Because Wheeler's 'It from Bit' is tied to his Participatory Universe I explore that topic and a theory of information based on gravity.

The Nature of the Wave Function


Which of our basic physical assumptions are wrong? Superposition of quantum states and collapse of the wave function are significant assumptions. We address the physics of the wave function, the wave function as probability, the extent of the wave function, quantum correlations, Bell's theorem, spaces in which wave functions are formulated, and discuss recent experiments that support our interpretation.

The Analog In, Digital Out Universe


Is Reality Analog or Digital? Analog and digital mathematical treatments can be shown to be equivalent, so the answer does not lie in math but in physics. At root is the nature of particles and fields. The simplest possible physical model, one field, will be analyzed and physical experiments proposed to show an analog reality with digital consequences. There are implications for the view of reality currently associated with entanglement and violation of Bell's inequality.

Fundamental Physics of Consciousness


Because every physical theory assumes something, that basic assumption will determine what is ultimately possible in that physics. The assumed thing itself will likely be unexplained. This essay will assume one thing, a primordial field, to explain current physics and its many current mysteries. The derivation of physics from this entity is surprisingly straightforward and amazingly broad in its implications.

FPGA Programming Step by Step


FPGAs and microprocessors are more similar than you may think. Here's a primer on how to program an FPGA and some reasons why you'd want to.

Small processors are, by far, the largest selling class of computers and form the basis of many embedded systems. The first single-chip microprocessors contained approximately 10,000 gates of logic and 10,000 bits of memory. Today, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) provide single chips approaching 10 million gates of logic and 10 million bits of memory...

FPGA Design from the Outside In


FPGAs enable everyone to be a chip designer. This installment shows how to design the bus interface for a generic peripheral chip.

When designing with an embedded microprocessor, you always have to take into account, if not begin with, the actual pinout of the device. Each pin on a given microprocessor is uniquely defined by the manufacturer and must be used in a specific manner to achieve a specific function. Part of learning to design with embedded processors is learning the pin definitions. In contrast, field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices come to the design with pins completely undefined (except for power and ground). You have to define the FPGA's pins yourself. This gives you incredible flexibility but also forces you to think through the use of each pin...

A Physics-based Disproof of Bell's Theorem


After decades of experimental validation, Bell's Theorem has changed the ontological status of local realism in physics. But recent theoretical and experimental results present a new challenge to Bell's analysis. A geometric-algebraic challenge claims that Bell makes a topological mistake, while 'weak measurement' results challenge the Copenhagen Interpretation. We review these results and analyze the physics of Bell's Theorem, embedding Bell's inequality in a truth statement, and showing it to be falsified.

GEM and the Constant Speed of Light


At the root of reality is the nature of particles and fields. The simplest possible physical model, one field, the gravito-magnetic field, self-interacts to produce mass and charge and hence the electromagnetic field. This paper focuses on the interaction of this gravito-magnetic field with the electro-magnetic field.